Healthy people 2020 – world health organization
Health Issues and healthy people 2020 || world health organization.
Health issues comes about when the normal metabolism of the body of a healthy people fails or is being altered due to pollutant, pathogen or other possible means that cause health challenges which are considered as disease.
In some cases these issues could be genetic, by which the proposed patient might have inherited the disease causing gene from their parents. These health issues were first diagnosed and an effective treatment is given to the patient upon dependent on his need so that the body metabolism returns back to it’s normal state. Thus helps the patient to recover from the disease. Do we still have healthy people in 2020 ? World health organization should look into this case.
A question one should ask is, what are coronaviruses?
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
In human beings, it mostly causes balmy infections, likewise to the common cold, and accounts for 10–30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults. More life threatening infections are rare, although coronaviruses can cause enteric and neurological disease. The incubation period of a coronavirus varies but is broadly up to two weeks.
Former coronavirus outbreaks which have occured include Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), identified in southern China in 2003]. MERS infected around 2,500 people and led to more than 850 People while SARS infected more than 8,000 people. The case fatality rates for these conditions were 35% and 10%, respectively.
SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously discovered in humans. Although the incubation period of this strain is currently unknown, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure. Chinese researchers have indicated that SARS-CoV-2 may be infectious during its incubation period.
The number of cases outside of China overtook those within it on 16 March 2020
Where has the new coronavirus come from?
It is currently unclear where the virus has come from. Originally, the virus was understood to have originated in a food market in Wuhan and subsequently spread from animal to human. Some research has claimed that the cross-species transmission may be between snake and human; however, this claim has been contested,.
Mammals such as camels and bats have been implicated in previous coronavirus outbreaks, but it is not yet clear the exact animal origin, if any, of SARS-CoV-2.
Another essential question one should bear in mind is; How contagious is COVID-19?
Increasing numbers of confirmed diagnoses, including in healthcare professionals, has indicated that person-to-person spread of SARS-CoV-2 is occurring. The preliminary reproduction number (i.e. the average number of cases a single case generates over the course of its infectious period) is currently estimated to be between 1.4 to 2.5, meaning that each infected individual could infect between 1.4 and 2.5 people.
Similarly to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough. Measures to guard against the infection work under the current assumption that SARS-CoV-2 is spread in the same manner.
How is COVID-19 diagnosed?
As this coronavirus affects the respiratory tract, common presenting symptoms include fever and dry cough, with some patients presenting with respiratory symptoms (e.g. sore throat, nasal congestion, malaise, headache and myalgia) or even struggling for breath.
In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure.
The case definition for COVID-19 is dependent upon the symptoms regardless of travel histories or contact with confirmed cases. Diagnosis is suspected in patients with a new, continuous cough, fever or a loss or changed sense of normal smell or taste (anosmia). A diagnostic test has been developed, and countries are quarantining suspected cases.
Individuals with the below can be qualified as infected
New continuous cough AND/OR
Temperature ≥37.8°C AND/OR
Anosmia (a loss or changed sense of normal smell or taste)
Persons with any of the above symptoms or signs but who are well enough to remain in the community should stay at home for at least 10 days from the beginning of symptoms and get tested. Households should all self-isolate for at least 10 days if one member shows symptoms.
The government launched its coronavirus action plan on the 3rd of March 2020, which details four stages: contain, delay, mitigate, research. On 12 March 2020, the UK moved to the delay phase of the plan and raised the risk level to ‘high’.
On the 16th of March 2020, it was announced that social distancing measures, such as working from home and avoiding social gatherings, as well as household isolation for those with symptoms.
Furthermore social distancing measures were announced on the 18th of March 2020, including closure of schools in most countries worldwide, except for vulnerable children and those of key workers, such as pharmacists and other health and social care staff, teachers and delivery drivers. Restaurants, cafes, pubs, leisure centres, nightclubs, cinemas, theatres, museums and other businesses were also told to close.
On the 22nd of March 2020, it was announced that the most clinically extremely vulnerable people, including those who have received organ transplants, are living with severe respiratory conditions or specific cancers, and some people taking immunosuppressants, should stay in their homes for at least the next 12 weeks (see Box 2). However, Public Health England (PHE) updated its advice on 31 May 2020, revealing that those who have been shielding can go outside with members of their own household from 1 June 2020; those who live alone can meet outside with one other person from another household. Further relaxation of PHE’s advice was announced on 22 June 2020, to come into effect on 6 July 2020, with shielding paused from 1 August 2020. In Scotland, restrictions for those shielding were eased on 17 July 2020, with the aim of pausing the programme from 1 August 2020 providing infection rates remain low. Shielding restrictions in Wales will be paused from 16 August 2020.
The category of persons classed as “clinically extremely vulnerable” may include the following (disease severity, history or treatment levels will also affect who is in this group):
Solid organ transplant recipients
People with cancer who are undergoing active chemotherapy
People with lung cancer who are undergoing radical radiotherapy
People with cancers of the blood or bone marrow such as leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma who are at any stage of treatment
People having immunotherapy or other continuing antibody treatments for cancer
People having other targeted cancer treatments which can affect the immune system, such as protein kinase inhibitors or PARP inhibitors
People who have had bone marrow or stem cell transplants in the last 6 months, or who are still taking immunosuppression drugs
People with severe respiratory conditions including all cystic fibrosis, severe asthma and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary
People with rare diseases that significantly increase the risk of infections (such as severe combined immunodeficiency, homozygous sickle cell)
People on immunosuppression therapies sufficient to significantly increase risk of infection
Adults with Down’s syndrome
Adults on dialysis or with chronic kidney disease (stage 5)
Women who are pregnant with significant heart disease, congenital or acquired are also more vulnerable to coronaviruses.